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  • Forfatters billedeMark Hallander

A framework for competitive strategy: How to use the Five Forces analysis

In today's fast-paced business environment, it's essential to have a clear understanding of your company's position in the market. One way to achieve this is by using Porter's Five Forces Framework, a valuable tool for analyzing the competitive forces at work in your industry. In this article, I'll explain the Five Forces and show you how to apply them with practical examples.


Understanding Porter's Five Forces Framework

The Five Forces Framework was developed by Michael Porter, a renowned professor at Harvard Business School, in order for businesses to identify the forces that affect their industry's competitive environment.


By understanding these forces, companies can develop strategies to gain a competitive advantage.


The Five Forces are:

  1. Threat of New Entrants: This force refers to how easy or difficult it is for new competitors to enter your industry. Factors like regulations, economies of scale, and brand recognition can all impact the level of threat.

  2. Bargaining Power of Suppliers: How much leverage do suppliers have over your industry? Suppliers with significant bargaining power can dictate prices and other terms, which can impact profitability.

  3. Bargaining Power of Buyers: Just as suppliers, buyers can have leverage over your industry too. Buyers with significant bargaining power can demand lower prices or better terms, also impacting profitability.

  4. Threat of Substitutes: How easy or difficult it is for customers to switch to alternatives to your product or service? Factors like price, quality, and convenience can all impact the level of threat.

  5. Intensity of Competitive Rivalry: The final force refers to the level of competition in your industry. High levels of competition can lead to price wars and reduced profitability.


Pros and cons of using Five Forces

On the positive side, Five Forces analysis helps us to understand how value is shared amongst competitors in an industry and it can be used as a great base for formulating competitive strategy. Furthermore, it is an external analysis of the organization's environment, making its implications broader and a way to determine industry developments.


When using the framework, however, you should be aware that industry-based focus does not take into consideration international resources and competencies that have helped shape the specific industry. Additionally, the framework assumes "a standstill" in the external environment, and therefore does not apply well to industries with a lot of regulatory changes.


Applying the Five Forces Framework

To apply the Five Forces Framework, start by identifying the factors that affect each force in your industry. Then, assess the level of impact of each factor on your business. Finally, use this information to develop a strategy that leverages your company's strengths and weaknesses.


Here is a practical example of how to apply the Five Forces Framework:


Example: The Soft Drink Industry

  1. Threat of New Entrants: The soft drink industry has high barriers to entry due to significant brand recognition (think Coca-Cola) and economies of scale. This makes it challenging for new competitors to enter the market.

  2. Bargaining Power of Suppliers: The soft drink industry relies heavily on sugar suppliers. However, there are many suppliers, so their bargaining power is relatively low.

  3. Bargaining Power of Buyers: Soft drink buyers have significant bargaining power due to the abundance of substitute products like water, juice, and tea. This makes it challenging for companies to maintain high prices.

  4. Threat of Substitutes: The threat of substitutes is high in the soft drink industry. Customers can easily switch to other beverages, making it essential for companies to maintain brand loyalty and quality.

  5. Intensity of Competitive Rivalry: The soft drink industry is highly competitive, with companies engaging in frequent price wars to gain market share.


Implications of the Five Forces on Business Strategy

Once businesses have a clear understanding of the five forces at play in their industry, they can use this knowledge to develop effective business strategies.

  1. Creating competitive advantage: By identifying areas where they have a unique advantage, businesses can develop strategies to leverage those strengths and differentiate themselves from competitors. For example, a business with a proprietary manufacturing process might focus on quality or customization to set itself apart from competitors.

  2. Mitigating competitive threats: By understanding the factors driving competition in their industry, businesses can develop strategies to counteract those threats. If a business is facing increased competition from substitute products, it might focus on improving the customer experience or offer additional value-add services to retain customers.

  3. Identifying potential opportunities: By understanding the factors driving new entrants or substitute products, businesses can identify potential opportunities for growth or expansion. A company operating in a highly-regulated market might look for opportunities to innovate or disrupt the market by offering a new, more efficient approach.

  4. Informing resource allocation: By understanding the competitive landscape, businesses can make informed decisions about where to allocate resources such as marketing spend or research and development. For example, a business facing intense competition from multiple players might prioritize investing in product development to improve its offering and stand out in the market.


In summary

Overall, Porter's Five Forces is a valuable framework for businesses looking to understand the competitive landscape of their industry and develop effective business strategies. By identifying the key forces at play, businesses can make informed decisions about how to position themselves for success.

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